Guido van Rossum is the project's lead developer. In recognition of this role, he's sometimes jokingly called the Benevolent Dictator For Life, or BDFL; the acronym is occasionally used in python-dev postings, especially in a context such as "making that change will require a BDFL pronouncement". In theory the BDFL makes all the decisions about what goes in to Python and what doesn't. In practice, Guido will often defer to someone else's expertise in a specialized domain; for example, Tim Peters is the resident master of floating point arcana, Jeremy Hylton usually wrestles the Python compiler, and so forth. Modules in the standard library are also often the responsibility of a particular individual who's the first choice to review patches or fix bugs in it, but anyone can modify any line of code at any time, and simple, obviously correct fixes can be applied by anyone.
An informal voting process is sometimes followed on python-dev. People will sometimes post their votes in response to a suggestion, giving them as +1, -1, +0, or -0. This numbering comes from the voting scheme used by Apache:
In the Apache project, this voting is formalized and is how binding project decisions are made, but in Python it's just a concise way to express opinions in a straw poll and the result isn't binding in any way. The BDFL will take note of the reaction to a proposal, but is free to ignore it. While the BDFL could completely ignore community reaction, I can't think of an instance where he's actually done so in the face of united disapproval by the community. The closest case to that might be the print >> statement, where everyone turned out to be divided 50/50 between liking it and hating it. Guido exercised his right to decide, and the feature was added to the language in Python 2.0. Some people still hate it; some people who first argued against it have now grown sneakily fond of it.
Because Python is a programming language and there are a few million lines of Python code in the world, the development process has to impose some rigidity and provide some resistance against accepting changes too easily. Users have Python code, extension modules written in C, and applications that embed Python, so it's important that the inconvenience of upgrading to new versions of Python is minimized. Language changes might also make the language too difficult for new users to learn.
As a way to ensure that changes are carefully considered, significant changes must be described in a Python Enhancement Proposal, or PEP. PEPs are modelled on the Request For Comments documents used by the Internet Engineering Task Force, and describe a proposed change by giving fairly complete documentation for it and a design rationale. PEPS also record the community's consensus about a feature, because the PEP's author must take note of people's comments and incorporate their feedback. PEPs are especially important if the suggested feature gets rejected, because the same ideas often come back again and again, resulting in lengthy discussion threads that always arrive at the same outcome. (For example, ideas such as not using indentation, adding a with statement, or support for interfaces often come up again and again.) Like a FAQ, which tries to reduce newsgroup traffic by answering questions before they're asked, PEPs try to reduce repeated suggestions.
All the PEPs are available online at http://www.python.org/peps/. PEP 1, PEP Purpose and Guidelines explains the purpose of PEPs, their life cycle, and the prescribed format for a PEP. Read it before beginning to write a PEP.
Any significant additions to the Python core must be accompanied by supporting patches for the documentation. Python's documentation is written using LaTeX and a significant set of accompanying macros. This format can then be converted to PDF, HTML, or PostScript. Fred L. Drake, Jr. has written "Documenting Python", containing a quick introduction to LaTeX and a guide to the Python macro set.
You should also write helpful docstrings for modules, because the pydoc module provides online help generated from module docstrings. Writing docstrings is therefore an easy way to make life easier for users.
The file Misc/NEWS is the traditional place to record all changes to the Python code. This file is intended to be a complete record of changes between versions, and therefore useful for (among other purposes) finding the source of compatibility issues.
Misc/NEWS is also scanned before each release as the source of the "What's new in Python X.Y" documents, created from whatsnewXY.tex. This document is a fuller description of only the more significant changes to the language. Developers are welcome to add descriptions of their own changes to whatsnewXY.tex, but not at the expense of omitting change descriptions in Misc/NEWS.
If you only have time to do one thing, record your changes in the Misc/NEWS file.