Session 1: Opening Session
- Intro by Paul Everitt
- short review of last workshop
- Roger Masse introduces CNRI, Background on CNRI charter, and Bob Kahn
Keynote address: Dr. Robert Kahn
The Future of the Internet
The history of the Internet
- The history of the Internet starts with a personal history.
- Started at Bell Labs in 50s as mathematician.
- Went to MIT. no practical experience on building anything.
- When to Bolt Braneck and Newman to get experience building
something real. Computer networks.
- JCR Licklider, psychologist went to US government to get ARPA started
- ARPA to get ARPA network started, put out RFQ to build a network.
- Lots of the design in the RFQ had been done by Bob in previous
papers submitted to ARPA by Bob!
- Worked with a hard core engineering group at Lincoln Labs.
Trial by fire because no experience in building.
- The idea of packet networks was not considered feasible at that time.
as it was considered impractical.
- The NCP (network control protocol) was built by Vint Cerf, which
assumed everything worked. No failure support.
- In 70's started thinking of using satellites and packet radios.
Invented first radio that incorporated microprocessor and spread
- Bob wanted to apply failure recovery to the next generation NCP.
- In the days of hardware was $1M and software was free.
$100k for 1MB of memory
- Teamed up with Vint Cerf at Stanford. Had idea of how to embed
packet switching in the operating system.
- Mentality of day was hard wired printers. The Internet protocol
would require the operating system to recover when a resource
- Proposed the idea of an open network to industry. It was not
understood because the networks of the day were run by telcomm
- One question that arose was "How would one manage this"
- For first 3 years, Bob just managed it himself. Bob also had all the
money so it was easy for him as it was just BBN, Stanford, and
University of London
- In 1976 Bob hired Vint to ARPA. He ran the Arpanet from 76-82.
- In the US, peek level in CS research was in 74. Fell to 1/3 the
- At that time Bob started up the VLSI program and some other
computer science applications
- Internet was still small. 30 sites by 1980.
- Jan 1, 1983 transition of the Internet protocol took place.
100's of sites to convert.
- In 1978 so many details that Bob was worried that Vint was a single
point of failure. Bob asked him to start up a kitchen cabinet to manage
the Internet. The Internet Configuration Control Board. (12 people.
- The ICCB evolved to having 12 people working with 300 people
sitting around listening. Totally unworkable.
- Hired manager Barry Leiner to ARPA. Good management skills.
Restructured. Internet Activity Board and ten task forces.
The 300 people were asked to join any of the task forces.
- Barry turned over the technical decisions to
Eric Block joined NSF and wanted to enter the activity. They picked
up the work as both Barry and Bob left ARPA in 1985.
- Steve wolf was the key person at NSF in opening up the network.
Create backbone NSFnet and then connected from science community.
- IAB became the standards body for the Internet. The government
started wondering how the work would be funded.
- CNRI was formed in 1986 my Vint and Bob
- CNRI formed the Internet Engineering Task Force shortly after
- Task force size grew to 100. Phil Gross was hired to help.
- Congressman Voucher in Va. proposed bill to open Internet to
- Net starts growing 10% a month.
- The IETF method of doing standards was backwards from industry. The
consensus process worked well. CNRI didn't want to be part of any
legal battles? Internet Society was formed to insulate CNRI from
Internet standards process. The IAB in 1992 voted to join the
- IAB put out a paper on what they thought the next generation protocol
- CNRI spins off ISOC as a separate entity mainly run by Vint
- IETF now runs the Internet standards, but they are not a member of the
Internet Society. The IAB no longer controls the IETF so the
interplay between the two organizations is somewhat strained.
Telcos, other commercial forces, and library systems
- The communications industry is now starting to understand how open
system can work
- Microsoft was going to check to be sure that their Win95 software would
continue to work with the 497 Internet Service Providers.
- Someone likened the web to looking at champaign bottles to see what
bubbles to the top. Sees the searching of repositories as the only way
people will be able to effectively find relevant information.
- Digital Library - originally like a bookshelf.
- Realize that what you put on the shelf is not what you end up
taking off the shelf.
- The service acts on the data so what is stored is not what you will
- More like going to a restaurant. You don't ask what they have in
the pantry. You pick an item off a menu and the service is added of
preparing what is in the pantry into a tasty dish.
- Even the language is a problem. The word Get as a services request is
inappropriate... not expressive enough
- Two sides converging with a mist in a middle.
- Simply provider services
- Simple a delivery mechanism. Getting Lion King to the home
without allowing modification in the middle
- Power will be in the Internet's facilitating collaboration of work.
- Five rights in U.S. copyright:
- control reproduction
- control distribution
- control public performance
- control display of work in public
- Don't take something with you. You just to view it.
- Fewer laws have been written in this area because it
hasn't been a big issue till now.
- Home videotaping law was interesting. It's not a public
performance so taping is ok. It is Ok because it is not a taping of a movie. It's a copy of the performance of a movie. (Only something a lawyer can truly appreciate.)
- control derivative work
- Cable industry got off the ground because common carrier law does not
make the carrier liable for content between two parties unless you are
- Invented the notion of resale common carriers. Used for creating a
super-stations. The satellite carrier was not liable for copyright
violations. Also made it so the broadcasters could not go at them.
- Cable given compulsory licensing. Set up copyright royalty tribunal.
Tax 3.5% was distributed based on statistical methods.
- In 1992 the law was reversed. Getting local stations permission
before the cable company could carry the channel
On making ISP liable for content.
- Congressional approach to solving this problem is akin to:
thinking about shutting down the road system because
burglary is happening. This is the wrong solution.
- Need other ways of dealing with it. Can't do it by writing laws
prohibiting use. Should be the responsibility of the family to monitor
Johnny, not the government.
Question and Answers
- Q: Rob Page question something like... what about universal access to
- A: Bob believes universal access should be the goal. You have to
pay a small fee, but this is mostly considered acceptable. This
may change if Post Office project works out
- Q: Rob asked about PSA direction:
- A: The worst thing to do is worry about things that might happen.
- People will be burning to discuss the insurmountable opportunity when
it arises. Just let it simmer until this evolves.
- Seen more times where people tries to do things in committee and they
rarely go anywhere. Usually have a champion to lead and to provide
the image. People would
- Take a look at "Framework for Digital Object Services" by Bob
Kahn and Robert Wilensky on CNRI home page.
- Saw it in Bill Joy when other companies were trying to compete with
someone with vision and moving at the speed of light.
- Takes an apartment building managers point of view towards the PSA.
- Every industry with a food chain will have a different architecture.
- Q: ATT guy Will Internet replace the phone system?
- A: If it does, there will be plenty of opportunities created